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Copy Editing 

I carefully read your paper, twice through, for grammar and meaning and I:

  • Correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, & word use

  • Polish & streamline (shorten) sentences

  • Insert more precise, colorful vocabulary

  • Turn passive verbs into “actives”

  • Align subject-verb-object phrases

  • Untangle confusing sentences and paragraphs

  • Insert questions & suggestions to help you clarify concepts

  • Correct in-text citations using style guides (APA, MLA, Turabian/Chicago, CSE)

  • Check quotes, name spelling or facts that seem incorrect

  • Check for consistencies in spellings and style throughout a paper


I also point out:

  • Redundancies

  • Where to add transitions

  • When to paraphrase rather than quote

  • Language bias (age, cultural, gender, racial, religious, etc.)


Note: I edit all papers in Track Changes so you can see every change I make, and accept, reject, or tweak them.  


For more on Track Changes see Track Changes instructions

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$50-$65 for 1,000 words, depending on writing quality, editing needs.

Free 2 Page Sample! Email for more information.

Structural Editing

In structural editing, I read papers thoroughly and comment on The Big Picture: the paper’s overall structure, clarity, and flow. 

I point out strengths and weaknesses:

  • Is your thesis clear ... and threaded throughout?

  • Is your hypothesis precise and measurable?

  • Do your ideas flow logically?

  • Is your argument convincing?

  • Are the concepts well supported with facts, examples, statistics, theory, citations?

  • Do you address the problem, question, or thesis identified in the introduction?

  • Does your conclusion reflect your findings and offer a fresh perspective?


I also point out:

  • "Holes" in logic

  • Where transitions are needed

  • Where lifeless quotes could be paraphrased

  • Extraneous information that could be cut or placed in footnotes

  • Murky sentences that need rewriting

  • Redundancies

  • Where additional facts and details could clarify an idea

  • Language bias (age, cultural, gender, racial, religious, etc.)


In structural editing, I do not copy edit for spelling, grammar, and punctuation … papers should be edited beforehand.

Note: Please carefully read the edited document to review all of my changes and comments.

I use Microsoft’s Track Changes (Revisions menu) so you can see every change, and accept or reject each.


Please read disclaimer here.

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